Rare Metals

Accessible REE lifecycle

Underground mining and crushing of ore to gravel size, then crushed ore is milled to finer size for mineral seperation

Flotation of milled ore designed such that the rare earth-containing minerals bond to chemicals and rise to the surface where they can be skimmed off and separated from non-rare earth containing materials. The output produced is mixed rare
earth mineral concentrate.

Engineered Tailings
Management Facility

Avalon's tailings are non-acid generating non-rare earth bearing materials resulting from the floatation and hydrometallurgy processes

Hydrometallurgy extracts all the rare earths elements from the mineral concentrate to produce a mixed rare earth oxide concentrate.

Separation is when individual rare earth oxides are separated from the mixed rare earth oxide concentrate. The individual rare
earth oxides, in powder form, are sold to chemical and metal producers.

Chemical and metal producers further purify the individual rare earth oxides to create chemicals, metals, magnets and phosphor compounds used to produce end user products.

Manufacturers produce end user products such as consumer electronics, hybrid and electric cars, wind turbines, medical equipment, solar panels, LED lighting and most high or clean tech products.

Recycling of rare earths reflects prudent environmental stewardship, however is influenced by individual collection, processing and market economics.