Accessible REE lifecycle
Underground mining and crushing of ore to gravel size, then crushed ore is milled to finer size for mineral seperation
Flotation of milled ore designed such that the rare
earth-containing minerals bond to chemicals and
rise to the surface where they can be skimmed
off and separated from non-rare earth containing
materials. The output produced is mixed rare
earth mineral concentrate.
Avalon's tailings are non-acid generating non-rare earth bearing materials resulting from the floatation and hydrometallurgy processes
Hydrometallurgy extracts all the rare earths elements from the mineral concentrate to produce a mixed rare earth oxide concentrate.
Separation is when individual rare earth
oxides are separated from the mixed rare
earth oxide concentrate. The individual rare
earth oxides, in powder form, are sold to chemical and metal producers.
Chemical and metal producers further purify the individual rare earth oxides to create chemicals, metals, magnets and phosphor compounds used to produce end user products.
Manufacturers produce end user products such as consumer electronics, hybrid and electric cars, wind turbines, medical equipment, solar panels, LED lighting and most high or clean tech products.
Recycling of rare earths reflects prudent environmental stewardship, however is influenced by individual
collection, processing and market economics.